REJEL PAC Volva Growing Technology

Introduction to Mushroom

Why Grow Mushrooms

Mushrooms have been part of our human diet since time immemorial. They were used as food even before man understood the use of other organisms. Undoubtedly, mushrooms were one of man’s earliest foods,and they were often considered and exotic and luxurious food reserved for the rich. Today mushroom are food both for the rich and the poor. They can be grown anywhere as long as the conditions for their growth and cultivation are provided. Available mushroom technologies range in complexity from the very high to amazing low.

Mushrooms have been variously considered as a hedge against famine or a possible cancer cure. They do certainly have enormous potential for feeding third world people. In the west, mushrooms are regarded as a luxury food. But in many developing countries of the world, mushroom can mean cash for the poor and a new source of nutrition. Even landless peasant can grow mushrooms as valuable crops as long as they have the proper technology, the proper substrates and planting materials called spawns.

Mushroom and their needs

A mushroom is defined as “macro fungus” with a distinctive fruiting body which can be either epigeous or hypogenous. The micro fungi have fruiting bodies large enough to be seen with the naked eye and to be picked up by hand. In a narrow sense, the word Mushroom also refers to the fruiting body. Mushroom used to be classified into the kingdom Plantae but now they belong to the Kingdom of Fungi due to the unique fungal characteristics which draw a clear line from animals or plants, mushroom is heterotrophy (not having chlorophyll); they cannot generate nutrients from outer sources. They need to feed a food like cellulose and water before it grows.

The life Cycle of Mushrooms: If the section of gills are cut and examined under the microscope, spores will be observed on their surface. The spores will start to fall as the cap is fully expands, indicating maturity of mushrooms. The spores are so minute that they float on the air and are by the wind. Eventually, they fall to the ground usually with rain. If the conditions are favorable (optimum temp. and moisture), the spores will germinate to form a mass of mycelia. This is the start of vegetative phase of the mushrooms. Given an unrestricted amount of nutrients and favorable growing conditions, it is capable of unlimited growth. The mycelium developing from the germinating spores is the so-called primary mycelium and is usually uninoculate and haploid. This stage is a short-lived because the mycelia from the different spores tend to ramify and fuse to form secondary mycelium with two compatible nuclei, which continues to grow vegetative and is able to form fruiting bodies. Here are some examples of straw mushroom (volvariella volvacea) Life Cycle:

Nutrition of the Mushrooms

The popularity of mushrooms is still based not on the nutrients that they contain but mostly on their exotic taste and their culinary properties, and can therefore make a very important contribution to human nutrition.

Food Value of the different cultivated mushrooms (% fresh weight)

Mushrooms/

Food items

  Protein   CHO     Fat Calcium

(Ca)

Thiamine

(Vit. B1)

Riboflavin

(Vit. B2)

   Iron

(Fe)

  Niacin

(Vit. B3)

Oyster M.  2.9 5.66 1.79 3.14 0.20 0.22 3.40    7.72
Straw  M.      3.8    6.00    0.60     3.00      0.10      0.17    1.7    8.30
Wood ear 4.8 7.16    0.50     3.15      0.08      0.19    3.60    4.00
Potato      2.0    9.10      0      11      0.10      0.04    0.70    0.04
Milk      3.5    4.90     3.9     118      0.04      0.17    0.10    0.17
Fish 14-20 2-3 1-2 15 60 1.20 1.50    1.20
Egg      13     2.0    13.3      68       18      0.27    1-15    0.27
Meat      21       –     3.6      8.3     0.10      0.29    2.52   29.00
Carrot 1.2     9.3     0.3       39     0.06      0.06    0.8     0.06

 

Composition of Tropical Mushroom

Nutrients per 100 grams

 

Edible Portion

Fresh

 

 

Dried
Moisture (%) 87.7 14,9
Food Energy (calories) 39.0 274.0
Protein (g) 3.8 16.0
Fat (g) 0.6 0.9
Total Carbohydrates (g) 6.9 64.6
Fiver (g) 1.2 4.0
Ash (g) 1.0 3.6
Calcium (mg) 3.0 51.0
Phosphorous (mg) 94.0 223.0
Iron (mg) 1.7 6.7
Thiamine (mg) 0.11 0.09
Riboflavin (mg) 0.17 1.06
Niacin (mg) 8.3 19.7
Ascorbic Acid (mg) 5.0

 

           Protein is one of the most important nutrients in food, being particularly important for building body tissues. Mushroom with protein content ranging from 3-7% when fresh to 25-40% when dry can play an important role in enriching diets when meat source are limited. The protein content is almost equal to that of corn, milk, and legumes, although still lower than meat, fish and eggs. As a dietary source of protein, are superior to most fruits and vegetables with the exception of beans and peas. Mushroom can be eaten fresh or cooked, unlike other protein source such as soya and yeast that have to be processed or disguised in some manner before they are acceptable on the table.

Mushrooms also contain all the essentials amino acids as well as commonly occurring non-essential amino acids and amides. Lysine, which is low in most important amino acids in mushrooms.

Mushrooms also rank quite high in their vitamin content, which include significant amounts of vitamin C. Although Vitamin A, mushroom make up for that with their high riboflavin, thiamin, and cyanocobalamin (Vit. B12) content, the latter being usually being found only in animal products. Their content of the anti-pellagra vitamin-niacin-is nearly equivalent to the levels found in pork or beef, which are to be considered to be the richest source of this vitamin. Mushroom are also good sources of minerals such as calcium, potassium, sodium and phosphorous in addition to folic acid, an ingredients known for enriching the bloodstream and preventing deficiencies. Iron is also present in an appreciable amount in mushrooms and together with phosphorous, can provide a good proportion of the recommended daily dietary needs. Mushrooms are low in sodium, making them ideal for persons with certain types of heart and kidney ailments.

As health food and medicinal

For the past 20 years, interest in the medicinal aspects of mushrooms has greatly been stimulated by the large number of scientific studies conducted on mushrooms. Folklores have provided clues for potential sources of medicine from mushrooms as well as from herbal plants. Using modern approaches, scientists have isolated and identified specific components that can either destroy or at least debilitate three of mankind’s killer disease: cancer, heart disease and AIDS. As a result, a vast body of scientific literature concerning mushrooms has been published since the 1970’s mostly in hospitals and research institutions in Europe, Japan, China and the United States. The most recent introduction of a medicinal mushroom is Ganoderma. The fruiting bodies have traditionally been used for medicinal purposes and for thousands of years have been regarded by the Chinese to be a high quality herbal medicine. It has been used clinically since ancient time in China for treatment of fatigue, coughing, asthma, indigestion, neurosis and a variety of diseases. Early reports indicated of the ability of Ganoderma to improve body functions, increasing its healing ability while maintaining a healthy and long life. It is now well establish from in vitro and in vivo studies that Ganoderma can help fight viral diseases, and modern research has proven its anti-tumor and interferon-inducting actions. Considerable data now indicates that Ganoderma basidiocarps have several components responsible for the inhibition of HIV multiplication. Today, Ganoderma is available in many countries in the form of fruiting bodies, capsules, tonic and instant teas and is grown in culture all over Asia. In California, Ganoderma is sold in Chinese stores in dry forms, without the need for pre- processing into teas.

How to prepare Ganoderma Tea:

  • 5 grams sliced Dried Ganoderma
  • 1 liter of water
  • Clay pot
  1. For person daily usage of 5 grams, add 1 liter of water and boiled for 1minute using low heat
  2. The boiled Ganoderma can used again until the bitter taste I gone, usually it is good for 2 to 3 times of boiling
  3. It is best to drink before its meal. For people with stomach problem, have the brew after each meal.
  4. If you dislike the bitter taste, add pure honey or glucose (avoid the use of sugar).

 

Doctor Roberto T. QuizonTestimony about Ganoderma Mushroom

My name Roberto T. Quizon, M.D. retired but still actively practicing medicine“Alternative complementary Medical Practice” At my clinic residence address: 108 8thavenue, Cubao, Quezon City.I am an 83 year old Medical Practitioner UST “Class 52” a General Surgeon with training at UST Hospital and in the U.S.A. Christ Hospital in New Jersey City and had several post graduate courses in the U.S.A. (PAM – 514916371-2-08).

Now, I only came to know Ganoderma Mushroom from a certain Teddy Laurie from Bicol. I used “TEA” for my patients routinely for my “cancer patients” who are also suffering from Diabetes and hypertension and other degenerative diseases the Diabetes and Hypertension comes under control easily. So Ganoderma is very effective for my short clinical experience. My further research affirmed the used and the usefulness of Ganoderma. As evidenced by “Chinese Medical Research and also from Japan, this mushroom has been used for “Centuries already in China”to cure all diseases afflicting mankind, in other words a “cure all”. I want to inform the poorpatients who have suffering from all types of “Degenerative Diseases” to please try to get in touch with me so I can help. I am now trying my best to help Teddy (my source) to find ways to lower the costs.

This is the main reason I want to promote Ganoderma Tea which is the cheapest available remedy for all “poor” patients who cannot afford expensive standard or western medicines. More patients and maybe doctors should know this vital information. I have been using almost all types of alternative herbals. Enzymes, Fruit juices, etc.local and imported for the several decadesof my medical practice but I find Ganoderma the least expensive but potent herbal to combat most “DEGENERATIVE” diseases that is afflicting most human due to unusual worldwide Pollution, Toxic and Stress. Now a day around the world, not only in the Philippines.

 

                                    PAC – Power Agriculture Concentrate

What is PAC?

  • All natural, purified, and organic liquid mineral concentrate
  • Ingredients are organic acids, nitrogen, iron, sulfur, manganese, copper and zinc plus 70+ macro and micro-organic plant-derived minerals, commonly known as Fulvic Acid —vital to soil, plant, and animal health
  • PAC products are processed from organic minerals that have been composting for more than 75M years
  • Derived from humic shale found in the western U.S. The formation of this humic shale deposit happened when there was no pollution, when plants and soils were their richest in nutrients
  • Though, not enough to cause excessive heat & pressure to create coal, oil, or alter the form of the minerals

A hard bed of clay at the bottom allowed the minerals collect and stop them from leaching

  • Analysis shows this deposit contains more than 70 mineralsThe humus never petrified or fossilized. Thus, it never became rock – just compressed and dried prehistoric “plant compost” that contains large amounts of plant-derived ionic minerals that was suspended in sea water
  • PAC products are processed from organic minerals that have been composting for more than 75M years
  • The minerals help plants increase their natural sugar content so they can fight disease and pests
  • These organic amendment products contain the highest known concentration of plant-derived mineral nutrients required for complete soil and plant health, and even for animal health
  • They can do all this because minerals are conductors of every living organism’s electrical current, vital for all animal and plant functions
  • Minerals act as catalysts and activators of most nutrients, including vitamins. Those vitamins cannot function properly without minerals
  • They help the animals’ body and plants keep its internal balance

 

Uses of PAC

  • The product is widely used in growing vegetables, herbs, medicinal herbs, fruit trees, sprouting barley or other seeds, indoor and outdoor houseplants, bonsai trees, orchids, date palms, coconut trees regenerate the growing media by promoting and sustaining health for future generations of plants

 

Dosage of PAC for Mushrooms

For Sawdust Substrates

  • 5 m.l. – per gallon of water

For Rice Straws and Leaves Substrates

  • 5 m.l – per gallon of water

For daily spraying

  • 5 drops – per liter of tap water

PAGTATANIM NG KABUTENG SAGING gamit ang Power Agriculture Concentrate (PAC)

Ang pagtatanim ng Volvariella ay hindi nangangailangan ng malaking capital ngunit nangangailangan ng maraming manggagawa. Mapagkukunan ito ng karagdagang pagkakakitaan ng mga magsasaka dahil pwede nang mag-ani sa lamang ng dalawang lingo.Maaaring gamitin ng lupa ng palayan kung panahon ng taniman para sa produksyon ng kabuteng saging. Pwede rin sa mga likod bahay o bakuran o mga bakanteng lote sa kapaligiran. Sa normal na pagpapatubo ang isang Bed na may sukat na 1 feet x 2 meters ay umaani lang sya ng 4 to 5 kilos sa buong buhay ng bed sa loob ng isang buwan. May ginagawa po kaming Pagaaral tungkol sa isang Product PAC (Power Agriculture Concentrate) kung saan domuble ang ani ko simulang gumamit ako ng PAC.

Paghahanda ng Cultivated Beds

  1. Ang unang dapat aasikasuhin ay ang lugar na pagtatayuan ng kama ng dayami o dahon ng saging
  2. Maaring sementado o direkta sa lupa o plot, ngunit mas madaling linisin ang paligid kung sementado
  3. Huwag magtatayo sa lugar na direktang tatamaan ng sikat ng araw
  4. Kailangan may lilim ang puno para maiwasan ang subrang pagkabilad sa araw o biglang pag-ulan.
  5. Pwedeng gumawa ng kama na may tatlong baiting (yari sa kahoy o kawayang kama ng paglalagyan ng dayami). Mas magastos nga lang ito, ngunit makatipid naman sa lugar.
  6. Kung itatayo ang kama mismong semento, maglagay ng bed foundation o palatandaan kung saan ilalagay ang substrates o bedding na karaniwang yari sa dayami.
  7. Siguraduhing malinis ang dayami bagong ani at napatuyo na.
  8. Hanggat maari, gumamit ng dayami ng bagong ani dahil kung bulok na ang dayami, may dala itong masamang organismo, tulad ng Coprinus spores o mga weed mushroom. Ang mga ito ay karaniwang dala ng hangin at nakakasagabal ng produksiyon ng kabute.

 

Hakbang sa paggawa ng Mushroom Beds Gamit ang tuyong dahon ng saging

Dapat nating tandaan na ang dahon ng saging ay kailangang kunin ang bagong tuyo dahon na nakakabit pa sa puno nito at hindi yung nakalapag na sa lupa. Upang maiiwasan ang pagtubo ng mga coprinus o mushroom wed.

  1. Ayusin ang dahon ng saging at ibungkos o ibigkis ang mga ito na may sukat na 12 inches ang haba at 6 inches ang dayametro (diameter)
  1. Putulin ang magkabilang dulo, ang lapad ng kama ay katumbas ng haba nito
  2. Ang mabubuong sukat ng kama ay 2 metro ang haba at 1 piye (feet) ang lapad. Kung dahon ng saging ang gamitin, kumuha ng tuyong dahon ng saging na nakalaylay pa lang sa puno nito na hindi pa bumagsak sa lupa. Putulin ito na gaya din sa proseso na gaya ng dayami. Gupitin ang subrang dulo ng dahon ng saging.
  3. Maglagay ng 30 ml PAC sa tubig ihalong mabuti ang PAC sa tubig
  4. Ibabad magdamag ang lahat na bungkos sa dram ng malinis na tubig sa loob ng apat na oras kapag dayami ang gamitin, at 10 oras naman kapag dahon ng saging ang gamitin.
  5. Patuluin ang bungkos pagkatapos na mibabad sa tubig ng 30 minutes bago pagpatung patungin habang pinuporma ang kama.
  6. Ayusin ang bungkos nang tabi-tabi at isiksik, kahanay sa lapad ng kama.
  7. Matapos ang unang suson (first layer). Magdilig ng 1 teaspoon PAC sa isang gallon ng tubig, basain ang dyaryo sa tinunaw na PAC at ipatong ito sa ibabaw ng nakasuson na mga bubgkos na dahon ng saging, magbudbod ng spawns ng Volvariella sa buong tagiliran sa ibabaw
  8. Ilagay ang natirang bungkos sa ibabaw at diligan muli at budboran ng spawn sa susong ito tulad ng ginawa sa una. Kailangang planuhin ang spawn na ilalagay para magkasya ang 2 bote sa buong 2 metrong haba ng kama. Kung mas’ maraming spawn ang ilalagay, mas mabilis ang pagkalat ng amag at mabilis ang pagtubo ng kabute.
  9. Makatapos makabuo ng isat kalahating piye na taas ng kama (5 layers), Gupitin ang tagiliran ng kama lalong lalo na ang subrang dahon na lumalabas sa tabi. Kapag pantay na ang mga tabi, mas madali ang pag-ani at hindi sik sik ang mga kabute sa malalim na bahagi ng tagiliran. Kung hindi kaagad makikita ang mga kabute, mabubulok lamang sa loob ng kama ang mga ito.
  10. Pagkatapos, takpan ang kama ng plastik o sako para hindi matuyo ang kama.

 

 

 

Pag-aalaga ng mga Kama (Beds)

  1. Pagkaraan ng 2-3 araw, pakiramdaman ang ibabaw ng kama o di kaya’y itaas ang nakasaklob na plastik at almin ang temperature sa loob. Kung mainit, luwagan ang pagkabalot sa kama, buksan o tanggalin ang plastik dahil maaring mamatay ang spawn sa init.
  2. Hindi lamang nakokontrol ng plastic ang pananatiling basa ang loob, kundi pati na ang temperaturang kailangan ng spawns sa paglaki.
  3. Ang temperaturang kailangang mapanatili ay 35ºC hanggang 38ºC. Paglagpas ng 38ºC, mamatay ang itinanim na spawn at ang tutubo ay ang Coprinus o weed mushroom.
  4. Sa loob ng isang linggo, bisitahin paminsan-minsan ang loob ng kamang taniman para malman ang temperatura at kung may insektong pumapasok.

Puwedeng dampian ng kamay ang ibabaw ng bed o isksik sa loob ng kama (bed) ang kamay. Pag sobra ang init o umuusok ang dayami, ay alisin ang plastik na takip at pahanginan. Puwede ring diligan ang labas o ibabaw ng plastik pero hindi dapat mababasa ang dayami na tinutubuan na ng amag.

  1. Sa ika- 10 araw matapos itanim ang spawn makakakita na kayo ng pinheads o maliliit na kabute na lumalabas. Kung malamig ang panahon, makikita lamang ang resulta pagkatapos ng dalawang linggo.
  2. Pagkaraan ng 2-3 araw pa, ang kabute ay nasa egg stage na sya namang pinakamagandang panahon para mag-ani. Pagkaraan ng 3-4 na araw sa pag-ani, pagpahingahin ang cultivating beds nang isang linggo.
  3. Simulan uli ang pag-aani sa susunod na 1-2 linggo pa. Bubunga ang mga kabute sa loob ng isang buwan.
  4. Ang pinakamababang ani na makukuha ay 3 kilo o katumbas ng P450 samantala ang pinaka mataas naman ay 4 to 5 kg sa loob sa isang buwang pagtatanim sa kama.

 Pagtatanim ng Kabuteng Saging sa pamamagitan ng Dayami                                                

  1. Komolekta ng bagong ginikan ng palay, ibilad hanggang sa matuyo ang dayami.
  2. Maglagay ng 30 ml PAC / 250 grams molasses / 250 grams apog sa isang dram na tubig tunawin at ihalong mabuti ang mga Ingredients o mga sangkap.
  3. Ibabad ang apat na sakong (sako sa bigas) dayami sa loob ng 10 hours , hanguin at patuluin ng dalawang oras.
  4. Lulutuin ang dayami sa steel drum o steaming process sa loob ng isang oras
  1. Pagkalipas ng ng isang oras ng pag steam, hanguin at palamigin.
  2. Gumawa ng pabilog na screen o wire mesh sa lupa, at ilagaay ang mga nilutong dayami na ang kapal sa bawat layer ay apat na pulgada ( 4 inches ).
  1. Maglagay ng mga boto o binhi ng kabute paikot o panggilid ng bawat layer hanggang sa mapuno ang ginawang lagayan na screen
  1. Pagkatapos matamnan na lahat na mga dayami, gumawa ng pantakip sa palibot nito sa pamamagitan ng plastik, kailangang walang singaw at maikulob ng mabuti ang Bed.
  2. Pagkaraan ng anim na araw, mapapalibutan na ang buong bed o kama ng mga sapot o mycelium ng kabute
  3. Pagkaraan ng labing dalawang araw, mamumunga na ito at panahon itoy aanihin na hugis itlog pa lang.

 

PAGSSASAAYOS NG KABUTE PAGKAANI (POST-HARVEST PROCESSING)

Ang kabute ay madaling masira o mabulok itoy iniimpake o tinatakpan ng stretch file (cling wrap) o plastic. Ito ay tatagal ng 4-5 days sa loob ng refrigerator. Kailangang pag-aralang mabuti ang layo mula sa mga pamilihang pinagpapaplanong pagbentahan ng produkto bago piliin ang lugar  ng pagtatamnan ng kabute para di magkaproblema sa pagtitinda ng sariwang kabute.                                         

Ang mga sumusunod ay kailangang isaalang-alang:

  • Ang kabute ay kailangang maging sariwa at malusog
  • Hugutin o bunutin ang buong bunga hanggang sa pinakapuno nito.
  • Higit na maiam anihin ang mga kabute sa medaling araw
  • Kinakailangang mayroong sapat na daanan ng hangin ang mga collection tray upang maiwasan ang paginit ng ilalim ilalim nito.
  • Alisin ang maruruming mga piraso na may kusot o sawdust bago iimpake ang mga kabute.
  • Ang label o tatak nito ay kinakailangang magtaglay ng larawan ng mga product, nutritional content,at ang logo o pangalan at address ng kompanya.

Ang mga sumusunod ay maaring pagdalhan ng mga ibinebentang kabute:

  • Mga mamamakyaw ng mga gulay
  • Supermarkets
  • Mga Palengke
  • Restaurant
  • Hotel

Malaki rin ang potensyal ng kabute bilang produktong pang export, kaya inaasahang higit na lalaki pa ang produksyon nito. Maaring iluwas o i-export ang mga kabute ng tuyo (dried), canned o preserved. Karagdagang Kaalaman Tungkol sa Pagpreserba ng mga kabute Para mananatiling sariwa ang mga kabute sa loob ng 5 hanggang isang lingo gawin ang mga sumusunod:

  1. Balutin ng katsa at ipasok sa loob ng refrigerator sa almig na 15°C.
  2. Ipatong sa yelo sa loob ng Styrofoam box.
  3. Ihilera sa dahon ng saging na nakapatong sa malapad at patag na lalagyan

          PAGSSASAAYOS NG KABUTE PAGKAANI (POST-HARVEST PROCESSING)

Ang kabute ay madaling masira o mabulok itoy iniimpake o tinatakpan ng stretch file (cling wrap) o plastic. Ito ay tatagal ng 4-5 days sa loob ng refrigerator. Kailangang pag-aralang mabuti ang layo mula sa mga pamilihang pinagpapaplanong pagbentahan ng produkto bago piliin ang lugar ng pagtatamnan ng kabute para di magkaproblema sa pagtitinda ng sariwang kabute.

Ang mga sumusunod ay kailangang isaalang-alang:

  • Ang kabute ay kailangang maging sariwa at malusog
  • Hugutin o bunutin ang buong bunga hanggang sa pinakapuno nito.
  • Higit na maiam anihin ang mga kabute sa medaling araw
  • Kinakailangang mayroong sapat na daanan ng hangin ang mga collection tray upang maiwasan ang paginit ng ilalim nito.
  • Alisin ang maruruming mga piraso na may kusot o sawdust bago iimpake ang mga kabute.
  • Ang label o tatak nito ay kinakailangang magtaglay ng larawan ng mga product, nutritional content,at ang logo o pangalan at address ng kompanya.

Ang mga sumusunod ay maaring pagdalhan ng mga ibinebentang kabute:

  • Mga mamamakyaw ng mga gulay
  • Supermarkets
  • Mga Palengke
  • Restaurant
  • Hotel

Malaki rin ang potensyal ng kabute bilang produktong pang export, kaya inaasahang higit na lalaki pa ang produksyon nito. Maaring iluwas o i-export ang mga kabute ng tuyo (dried), canned o preserved.

Karagdagang Kaalaman Tungkol sa Pagpreserba ng mga kabute

Para mananatiling sariwa ang mga kabute sa loob ng 5 hanggang isang lingo gawin ang mga sumusunod:

  1. Balutin ng katsa at ipasok sa loob ng refrigerator sa almig na 15°C.
  2. Ipatong sa yelo sa loob ng Styrofoam box.
  3. Ihilera sa dahon ng saging na nakapatong sa malapad at patag na lalagyan

Hanggat maari kailangang makarating sa merkado paakatapos itong maani, sariwa at maibenta na kagad.

 www.rejelmushroomcare.com/REJEL-PAC-Volva-Growing-Technology-1.pdf

https://ecommerceuniversity.asia/rejelmushroomcare/domains/rejelmushroomcare.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/31/2018/12/REJEL-PAC-Volva-Growing-Technology-1.pdf

 

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